Multilinguals’ and monolinguals’ use of awareness-raising activities: A study on reflective/impulsive learners (2023)

Authors

  • Amir RezaeiYork University, Toronto
  • Fatimah HashimUniversity of Malaya

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.1558/japl.27025

Keywords:

awareness raising, listening micro-skills, metalinguistic awareness, multilinguals’ awareness, reflectivity/impulsivity

Abstract

Research findings have confirmed that multilingual acquisition differs essentially from second language acquisition, and that multilingual learners have advantages over monolingual learners when learning a new language. These advantages are attributed to metalinguistic awareness, highly developed learning strategies and communicative sensitivity. This paper reports on research examining the extent to which multilingual and monolingual participants benefit from awareness-raising activities on listening skills, based on 252 female participants. Additionally, participants with two different learning styles – reflective/impulsive – are compared. For data analysis, a three-way ANOVA analysis with post hoc test was conducted. Results showed that being multilingual has significant effects on the use of awareness-raising activities. Similarly, it was revealed that being reflective/impulsive has a significant effect on multilingual speakers’ listening enhancement. Results also indicated that the interaction between being multilingual/monolingual and being reflective/impulsive is statistically significant. The results obtained give some insights on the effect of individual factors, especially cognitive styles, on the language development of multilinguals, and shed some light on models developed for multilingualism, especially the Dynamic Multilingual Model. The theoretical and practical implications of the study are discussed in detail.

Author Biographies

Amir Rezaei, York University, Toronto

Amir Rezaei, PhD, is currently doing research on assessment literacy and teachers’ beliefs and practices in ESL classes at York University in Canada. His main research interests are language awareness, multilingualism, TBLT, individual differences, language testing and listening skills. He has published his work in the Australian Journal of Teacher Education, ELT, Educational and Child Psychology Journal, Australian Journal of Linguistics and many other journals.

Fatimah Hashim, University of Malaya

Fatimah Hashim, PhD, has been teaching at the University of Malaya for more than ten years as a faculty member. Her research interests are second-language reading and literacy development, qualitative research methodology and curriculum design and development. She has published in a range of language and education journals and is the author of several academic books. She has published her work in journals such as System, ELT and Foreign Language Teaching Journal.

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