Fire Education In The United Arab Emirates Environmental Sciences Essay (2023)

Table of Contents
CHAPTER ONE 1.0 Introduction. 1.1 Statement of the problem. 1.2 Significance of the study. 1.3 Objectives of the study. 1.4 Research Questions 1.5 Summary of Paper and organization. 1.6 Main achievements CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 introduction 2.1 fire incidents and safety 2.2 Fire safety 2.3 Fire safety policy 2.4 Fire Prevention 2.5 Fire safety education 2.5.1 Educators 2.5.2 School Programs 2.5.3 Educators 2.5.4 Firehouse Program/Fire Safety House 2.5.5 Fire Drills 2.6 Chapter summary CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 3.1 introduction 3.2 Research questions. 3.3 The research strategy: qualitative and case study. 3.3.1 Qualitative study. Qualitative research approach is exploratory and focuses on discovery. 3.3.2 Case study 3.4 Study Design 3.5 Sources of data and data collection 3.5.1 Preliminary source material and documentary evidence 3.5.2 Guided interviews with the selected participants 3.5.3 Selection of data sources 3.6 Data analysis 3.6.1 Analysis of primary source material 3.6.2 Analysis of interviews 3.7 Quality and trustworthiness of the study. 3.7.1 Quality of the data sources 3.8 Ethical Considerations 3.9 summary CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH FINDINGS 4.0 introduction 4.1 research questions 4.1. The importance of fire safety education. 4.1.1 Fire as a threat Worst recorded fire tragedies that could have avoided with fire education 4.1.2 Tackling fire 4.1.3 Importance of fire education 4.1.4 Fire management training 4.1.5 The need of fire education 4.2 The implementation of fire education 4.2.1 The implementation of fire education in the USA. Fire and life safety education in the US Implementation of fire safety education Schools , colleges and universities Community and the Public Organization of fire safety programs 4.2.2 The implementation of fire education in the UK Implementation. 4.2.3 Other countries 4.3 summary CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS

ABSTRACT

This research study was established in order to determine the importance of fire safety education to UAE public and its implementation. The researcher conducted a qualitative investigation on how fire education has been developed and carried out in the Unites States of America (USA) and the United Kingdom (UK) with an objective of determining how the same can be employed to teach fire education to the public of United Arab Emirates (UAE).

The research found that the UAE public has very little skills and knowledge in fire management and suppression in the event of its occurrence. The research found that although the UAE public appreciated that fire is a threat to their everyday living, there was little effort made in an attempt to learn how to manage it. It was noted that the only skillset that thy have , aside from calling the fire authorities, was suppressing fire by either pouring water on it or turning off electricity from the main switch to limit the spread of electric fires. However, majority of them acknowledged that they require fire education.

The researcher embarked on conducting a qualitative research using case study to determine how other countries such as the US and the UK have implemented fire education to prepare its citizens against the occurrence of fire disasters and its prevention. The research found that in the US and UK, fire and safety education is implemented right from the kindergarten to universities .the fire relevant authorities are responsible for creating and implementing the curricula for teaching fire education, with the assistance of the Education department.

The research, through case study, found out that the US had put elaborate programs that can educate the public on fire education, ranging targeting preschoolers, school children senior citizens, home owners, churches, apartment dwellers to civic organizations to educate them on fire and disaster management practices, fire suppression, to advanced education such as natural disaster management such as earthquakes, tornadoes, to hurricanes and terrorist activities. It was noted that the fire department, who are responsible for the development and deployment of fire and safety education curricula, realized that the public are usually the first on the scene of incident and on teaching them how to carry out disaster management anf suppression could help save lives before the processional team arrives

The fire department is responsible for tailor making fire and safety education programs for schools named "Learn Not to Burn". The program contains curricula for teaching students from kindergarten through grade 8, completely packaged with learning materials for the students and teaching /resource materials for the teachers. The department also publishes an curricula document called "the Campus Watch" targeted at more mature audience in colleges and campuses, that enhances what was taught in the lower levels and advances on fire and safety management.

The department also targets other public who do not go to school and may not have enough time to attend fire demonstrations and functions through several approaches such as using the media to convey fire education, displaying fire procedures and safety in buildings under the "Incase of Fire" , or mandating building owners to display fire procedures and instructions in residential and all types of structures.

The research provides approaches that the government (specifically the fire authorities) and the education department in the UAE can adopt in creating a curriculum that can be adopted in teaching the public on UAE basic fire management and safety education in developing a skilled citizen who can respond to fire and other situations to help save lives and property loss.

Contents

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction.

For longer than has been recorded in history of humanity, fire has been a source of comfort and a catastrophe to the human race. Fire , rapid, self-sustaining oxidation process that is accompanied by the production of heat and light of varying intensities, has been believed to be based on the presence of three key elements: source of fuel, heat and oxidizers.

Fire safety education refers to the activities and precautions that are taken at the likelihood of its occurrence, of which the occurrence may result in death of people and damage to property, or alert those in a building or structure that is on uncontrolled fire, or better enable those who are threatened by fire to service it and be evacuated from the affected areas. Fire safety also includes the activities taken to reduce the damages caused by fire, such as during the construction of buildings or implementation in structures that already exist or stand. Fire safety also includes fire procedures and precautions taught to occupants and the general public in preparedness for fire tragedies.

The focus of fire safety at the present in the UAE is on the fire authorities and brigades being able to react quickly to fires when they occur. This at the present has achieved some success, although the number of fires is still on the rise. The current approach that shall effectively help manage fire and fire incidents is a system that focused more on the prevention of fire, rather than methods of dealing with fire after it has started. The approach should be grounded in community fire safety, requiring that the fire services be engaged more with the community to prevent fire.

1.1 Statement of the problem.

Fire tragedies have been on the rise in recent years as indicated by fire tragedies statistics. Prevention of fire is the key in eliminating the key which may contribute to the cause of any fire. Many countries are adopting fire preventive mechanisms and procedures to minimize the impacts of fire incidents on human lives and property. Most counties inculcate fire safety and procedures to the member citizens from an early age. Countries such as the United States and England have included fire safety education in the school curriculum to be taught to children from as early as 8 years. Most of the these counties also carry out fire safety education campaigns to the general public on a regular basis, for the purposes of creating awareness on fire prevention and management, for example, the United States, firefighters visit primary schools to teach the students fire safety through the fire education program. Fire safety For in school programs are crucial for management of domestic fires, for example, it is reported that in 2002 alone, children playing with fire stated approximately 14,000 structural fires, resulting in 210 deaths, over 12000 injuries and over $330 million in property damage (fire safety journal, 2009) .This develops a prepared nation for fire occurrences. Shen-wen Chien et al (2007) in a research paper on the strategies of fire prevention on residential fires notes that, residential fires remains the major type of fires among all fire incidents and the main reason to causing unintentional fire deaths. In the study, it was noted 75% of the deaths caused by fire incidents occur in residential places.

However, in the UAE, fire safety education has not been fully implemented to sensitize the public on fire hazards and control procedures. The rise of fire incidents in the country continually increases the number of lives lost through fire incidents and loss of property millions of dollars annually.

1.2 Significance of the study.

Fire safety education is an important aspect of today’s living. Majority of fire incidents are manmade, as compared to natural fires. At least during the occurrence of fire, the first respondents to the call of fire are the public, of whom with adequate firefighting and management skills can greatly help save lives of the affected, and reduce damage to property, before the relevant firefighting authorities arrive to the scene. Therefore, the public needs to know how to respond to fire incidents through fire safety education.

Understanding how fire safety education is conducted in other countries , especially the United States and Europe shall greatly help in developing policies and procedures of how to sensitize the public on fire safety measures. The study shall help understand how these countries implement fire safety education to students from lower levels up to universities and the general public, and how the United Arab Emirates can adopt these policies to educate the public on fire management procedures.

1.3 Objectives of the study.

This research paper seeks to:

Explain the importance of fire safety education

Explain how developed countries implement fire safety education

Find out how fire safety education can be implemented in the United Arab Emirates

1.4 Research Questions

In achieving the objectives of this research, the researcher shall answer the following research questions.

What is the importance of fire safety education?

How do the developed countries implement fire safety education?

How can fire safety education be implemented in the United Arab Emirates?

1.5 Summary of Paper and organization.

This paper has been divided into five thematic chapters.

The first chapter introduces the concept of fire safety education. Id explains the needs of fire safety education to the public in preparedness for the occurrences of fire incidents. The chapter specifies the objectives of this study, and the significance of the study to the public and government.

The second chapter reviews previous fire incidents and how they could have been avoided with proper policies on fire safety education. it also reviews studies on the implementation of fire safer education in selected countries including the United States and Europe. The chapter also reviews hoe the government has implemented fire safety education in the UAE, and how the public of UAE have been prepared for fire incidents.

Chapter three explains the methodology chosen by the researcher for this study. The researcher explains the choice of the research design for this research, the methods of data collection, data integrity and ethical considerations for conducting this research study.

Chapter four explains the findings of the study.

Chapter five of the paper concludes the research findings.

1.6 Main achievements

Residential fires remain the major type of fires with the highest date rates among all other types of fire. it is observed that 75% of the deaths caused by fire incidents occur in residential places. This paper seeks to identify methods of educating the public on fire management skills that can greatly help save lives of the affected, and reduce damage to property during fire incidences. Developed countries such as the US and UK have put strategies in place to educate their public right from lower levels of schooling. This paper shall implementation of fire education in the UAE.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 introduction

Fire safety is a very important aspect of today’s living. Fire hazards are on the rise in the world. Fires have been classified among the leading causes of casualties in homes. Most governments around the world have recognized the need to fund fire agencies in their countries so as to minimize the number of tragedies and casualties been experienced every day. As such, fire safety awareness campaigns have been given priority in the education sector as well as in the community in order to sensitize the public of way to prevent, handle such situations and the victims.

Most fire incidents in the world are manmade, although a good percentage is caused by natural causes. Very few studies and research have been conducted on the implementation of fire education programs to train the public on how to avoid fire incidents and manage them should they occur. This chapter shall focus on introducing the concept of fire and fire hazards and the most prominent causes of manmade fires. The chapter shall also examine the history of fires in the Unites States(US), the United Kingdom (UK), and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The policies that are implemented by majority of the countries to enhance fire safety and management in the event of fire occurrence shall also be examined. The chapter shall also focus on the implementation of fire safety education in the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK)

2.1 fire incidents and safety

In the United Kingdom, it is estimated that at least one school is completely destroyed by fire every year. However, this has been attributed to arson attacks. The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 combines all preceding fire safety legislations. This order demands that employers should carry out fire risk assessments to scrutinize and minimize the probability of a fire starting, and the aftermaths of a fire if it were to start (Lecturers, 2012).

In the United States, there are several agencies that have been delegated for the duties to educate, regulate and handle fire hazards and education. Such Agencies includes The US. Fire Administration,The National Fire Protection Association and The Federal Emergency Management Agency whose roles are to conducts public fire education, fire data collection, fire research and fire service training.

The Unite Arabs Emirates(UAE) has also established fire safety guidelines and, the Civil defense has recently launched fire safety campaigns through a pavilion at one of the most visited places in Dubai. The government is in the process of revising old codes and enacting new UAE Fire and Life Safety Codes (The Big Project ME, 2012). These codes are aimed at prohibiting be revised to prohibit non fire-rated cladding panels on high-rise towers. The new code requires that, curtain walls or exterior assemblies used on high-rises must be aligned with Civil Defense approval. Further, new building designs must meet the national fire code.

It has been established that many worldwide many fires start from the kitchen, ignorance and though domestic chores. For example, it is reported that in 2002 alone, children playing with fire stated approximately 14,000 structural fires, resulting in 210 deaths, over 12000 injuries and over $330 million in property damage (fire safety journal, 2009) . It’s documented that the most people that were killed in the fires were children under 5 years, and children caused fires were the leading causes of fire injuries for children aged 0 – 14 years. Further, the cause of fire deaths for children aged 0 – 14 years is reported as the suspicious or intentional starting g of fire (arson ), whereby half of the fires set out intentionally are attributed to juveniles and on thirds attributed to children under 14 years old and below( Federal management Agency, 2004)

Studies have shown that the dangerousness of fire involvement by children and adolescents is magnified by its high life time prevalence

Accordingly, it has become necessary for fire education to be started at an early age so that the children can grow knowing the dangers associated with fires. However, this does not completely eliminate the need for educating the general public of the best ways to face a fire tragedy. The main aim of the fire safety agencies in these countries is to keep the public aware of the dangers that come with fire related tragedies.

2.2 Fire safety

Fire safety are those precautions that are usually taken in order to prevent or reduce the likelihood of fire that may result in death, injury or damage to property (NWCG, 2012). Fire safety also includes all the methods that can be implemented to alert the people in a structure to the presence of an uncontrolled fire if one should occur, or better enable those threatened by fire to survive it and evacuate them from the affected areas. Fire safety also includes the procedures and methods that are implemented during the planning and construction of buildings or those buildings that are already existing, and the procedures of fire management that is taught to the member occupants of that building (NWCG, 2012).

Fire hazards are those threats to fire safety. Fire hazards may include occurrences that may increase the probability of a fire starting, or may hinder escaping the fire in the event of one occurring. Fire safety is often a constituent of building safety.

2.3 Fire safety policy

Among the most commonly adopted policies that enhance fire safety are:

Most countries recommend building facilities in accordance with the version of the local building codes of the country

Maintenance of facilities and ensuring proper personal conduct in accordance to the provision of the fire codes. This is usually based on the awareness of the applicable regulation and advice by the residents and operators of the building.

Among the most commonly adopted for safety policies includes:

Policies that stipulate that at any time the number of residents in a building should not exceed the maximum recommended number

That the residents and owners of a building ensure that there are proper fire exits and proper exit signs, such as signs that points to them which can function in the events of power failures

Compliance the recommended electrical codes of the specified county to prevent overheating and ignition from electrical faults that may result in fires such as poor wire insulation, overloading appliances such as conductors, wiring etc with more current that the recommended ratings

Availing and maintaining the appropriate type of fir extinguishers in easily accessible locations

Proper storage of , and use of hazardous materials that may be required inside a building for storage and operational needs for example solvents in spray booths

The forbidding of hazardous and flammable materials in certain high risk areas of the structure

Regular inspection of buildings for code violations, issuance of ORDERS TO COMPLY and if necessary, prosecuting or closing structures and buildings that do not comply with the stipulated law, until the regulations are adhered to and corrected

Maintenance of early fire warning and alarm systems for detection and warning of fires

Making sure that spray fireproofing remains undamaged, and getting a complete record of fire stops

Ensuring that the occupants of a building acquired high level of training and awareness to eliminate obvious mistakes that may result in fires or compromise the security of a building against fire such as opening fire doors, use of hazardous materials in the building etc

Ensuring the fore drills are conducted regularly to prepare the residents and public against fire emergencies in the occurrence of one.

2.4 Fire Prevention

The focus of fire prevention has changed in the recent years. While the primary objectives of preventing catastrophic loss of lives, properties and resources has not changed, the strategies and approaches have been modified (NWCG, 2012). The ever rising fuel loads have ensured todays fires are harder to control, costly to suppress, and a great threat to the lives of the firefighters and public. Most fires today, such as wild land fires, spread rapibly, burning with intense heat and erratic behavior, seriously affecting and even altering the ecosystem and the surrounding communities, affecting their abilities to recover, and at times, costing human lives.

NWCG (2012) explains that while fire suppression tactics have been improved and made effective, the fire prevention tactics and strategies have to be changed.

"It is important to embrace the fact that, while past suppression tactics have been effective, fire prevention tactics and strategies have changed. No longer can we afford to invest all our resources in fire suppression forces, equipment, and strategies. "Reactive" fire suppression programs must evolve into "proactive" fire management programs that effectively apply fire prevention and hazardous fuels reduction techniques to not only reduce unwanted fire ignitions, but also minimize damages and personnel exposure from wildfires " (NWCG, 2012)

The primary objective of fire prevention programs is to prevent unwanted human caused fires. This mandates increasing awareness of the risks associated with fires, requiring that the message be balanced with the natural role of fire to support the overall objectives of land management agencies, that often includes fire as a tool(NWCG, 2012).

Research has shown that new techniques and strategies for fire prevention education can be used in specific situations to more effectively reduce the damages and risks from unwanted fires (NWCG, 2012). It has been noted that in order to produce an effective fire prevention program may mandate a new approach to how things are usually done, targeting new objectives. This at times involve developing new programs and deciding when these programs should be executed, often including adult education, developing new preventive training to non-fire personnel, among others (NWCG, 2012).

2.5 Fire safety education

In most countries around the world, fire safety education is done through the following means:

2.5.1 Educators

Fire safety agencies conduct free fire education and demonstrations through Fire safety educators who conduct training by giving lectures and fire safety demonstrations in elementary schools, at tenant association meetings and at community and senior centers. In addition, these training gatherings address the common causes of fire, fire injuries homes, and the provision of information on ways to prevent fires and what to do in case of fire. Those targeted by program are most vulnerable to fire in the society, young children and older adults (Gielen, Borzekowski, Rimal, & Kumar, 2010).

2.5.2 School Programs

It is important to understand the nature of fire injuries and fatalities for different age groups when planning fire safety education programs. An age -cause approach is at the core of these fire safety education school programs. Research shows that, children as young as five are capable of learning lifesaving techniques including activities like, maintaining smoke alarms, safe cooking practices, home fire escape and the safe handling of matches and lighters. Such activities and school oriented fire safety education programs help instill early awareness on the dangers of fire and how to prevent them.

2.5.3 Educators

Fire safety educators conduct training and provide lectures and fire safety demonstrations in schools free of charge. Throughout the school year, teams of fire safety educators are available to conduct classroom-to-classroom lectures all major cities in the regions. The classroom-to-classroom methodology, rather than a full-school assembly, is designed so children can have direct interaction with the educators. Training sessions address the common causes of fire and fire injuries in the home, as well as provide information on how to prevent fires and what to do in case of fire.

2.5.4 Firehouse Program/Fire Safety House

In the UK, U.S. and U.A.E, almost all municipals or counties have local firehouses that are viewed as the ideal venue to promote fire safety and prevention education to the community. Schools and other children’s groups books appointments to visit their local firehouse. In other instances, the agencies devise innovative ways to conduct fires safety education as evidenced by the ‘Fire Safety Wheel’ simulation program run by the New York Fire Department. The ‘Fire Safety Wheel’ is a mobile trailer that is equipped with a kitchen, living room and bedroom and is fixed with a smoke machine that creates a fire simulation. Such programs help the children and the community in general, to practice fire safety and evacuation techniques (NewYork, 2012).

2.5.5 Fire Drills

The fire departments all over that world have over the years carried out fire drills in order to practice and educate the public on real life fire safety procedures. Fires drills are carried out in highly populate areas or buildings when the public is unaware. This creates a situation that is almost hence the public is able to learn from this experience. In addition to educating the public on relevant fire safety measures, fire drills inform on the preparedness of the designated supervisory staff to respond according to the set emergency fire safety and evacuation procedures.

2.6 Chapter summary

This chapter focused on the importance of fire education in today’s world. It reviews fire safety, prevention and policies. The chapter also highlights some of the approaches that can be implemented in fire safety education to communities of a given country. The paper highlights fire safety education, its needs and implementation in the school and communities. With fire being classified among the leading causes of casualties in homes, the chapter has clearly demonstrated the need of educating the public on the management and prevention of fire accidents. The chapter focuses on the implementation of fire education in the US and UK with an overall objective of deriving a road map for the implementation of the same in the UAE. Currently in the UAE, the government is in the process of revising the old codes and enacting new UAE fore and Life safety codes. Its noted that most of the domestic fires today start in the kitchen, with most if them started by children under 14 years. This mandates that fire education be started at an early age so that the children can grow up knowing the dangers associated with this.

CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY

3.1 introduction

This study will conduct an exploratory and descriptive research on examining first, the level of fire safety in the Unites States of America (USA), United Kingdom (UK) and then Unites Arab Emirates (UAE). Secondly, the paper shall explain how fire safety education is implemented in these countries, and thirdly, how fire safety education can be implemented in the United Arab Emirates(UAE)

Chapter two highlighted some of the approaches that can be implemented in fire safety education to communities of a given country. The needs of fire safety education were highlighted. This chapter shall discuss the overall study design and the study’s multiple data collection and analysis activities used to collect sufficient data to answer the research questions.

3.2 Research questions.

As explained in the significance of the study and the literature review on the rise of fire incidents and effects on property and human lives, there is a need of fire safety education in the UAE. This study seeks to understand how fire safety education can be implemented in the UAE. And in doing so, this research focuses on establishing how developed countries such as the US and the UK have implemented this. The following research questions shall be used to guide this study.

What is the importance of fire safety education?

How do the developed countries implement fire safety education?

How can fire safety education be implemented in the United Arab Emirates?

3.3 The research strategy: qualitative and case study.

Keeping in mind the study’s goal, the research strategy needs to focus on establishing the importance of fire safety education, and how other countries have implemented it to give a pathway of how the UAE can employ the same approach, this research shall gather qualitative data through the use of case study to gather pertinent data to answer the research questions.

3.3.1 Qualitative study.

This study mandated a research approach that would acknowledge the complexity of social process and focus on the context and specifics fire education implementation in the US and UK. A qualitative approach is most suitable for this research. The following assumptions favor’s a qualitative approach to this study

Qualitative research enables a holistic perspective. Qualitative research assumes that a complex phenomenon is under study and that a complex system cannot be meaningfully reduced to several variables and linear causal relationships (Patton, 1990). Qualitative approach portrays a holistic setting and impacts is that greater attention can be given to nuance, setting, interdependence, complexities, idiosyncrasies and context (p. 51).

Research incorporates an emergent design. The research design cannot be completely specified in advance of the fieldwork. Clear understanding develops and evolves through the research process and each data collection and analysis activity informs subsequent data collection and analysis activities. This study, as an exploratory study, requires flexibility to respond to the researcher’s evolving understanding of the phenomena and to pursue new avenues of inquiry as needed

Research is descriptive. Qualitative research focus on describing and understanding phenomena. The description involves detailed account of the context, the activities, the participants, and the process. This study aims at explaining the importance of fire education and an understanding on its implementation in the UK and USA, in order to give roadmap of the implementation of fire education in the UAE

Research is primarily focused with the process rather than outcomes or products. Qualitative research focuses on process, and is more interested in understanding and describing dynamic and complex processes. This study is concerned with "what" and "how" in respect to implementation of fire education in the US, UK and the UAE

Research involves fieldwork. Fieldwork implies that the researcher will have direct and personal contact with the people involved in a phenomenon in the natural setting of the phenomenon

The Research uses the researcher as the primary instrument of data collection and analysis. Qualitative research presumes that the data are meditated directly by the researcher rather than through data collection instruments such as primary data documents, questionnaires, surveys, among others.

Research is interested on how people make sense of their lives, how they interpret experiences and how they structure their social world. Standards development is a social process whereby a variety of stakeholders come together to agree on one or more ways of doing something. A qualitative approach presumes that each stakeholder brings various interpretations and values to the process. This study directs attention at the implantation of fire education in the US and the UK with an objective of creating a roadmap of implantation of the same in the UAE.

Qualitative research approach is exploratory and focuses on discovery.

Therefore, linking the assumptions to this research demonstrates that qualitative research approach is most suitable for this study. The study requires

A holistic oriented approach to a address the complex activities, processes and forces in implementation of fire education

A flexible research design that allows the researcher to pursue new directions in data collection as understanding develops during the research

Orientation towards detailed description that address both the context and specifics of developing aspects of implementation of fire education

A focus on the participants of the study and the process through fieldwork study

An inductive process that identifies and characterizes categories and patterns in data and grounds the findings in the data

3.3.2 Case study

A case study approach is useful when the opportunity to learn is of primary importance (Stake, 1994). The distinctive need for case study arises out of the desire to understand complex social phenomena (p. 14) Case study approach provides a mode of enquiry for in-depth examination of phenomena. Case study research in an empirical enquiry in that:

It investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context (Yin, 1989)

The boundaries between phenomena and context are not clearly evident

Multiple sources of evidence are used

Case study enables the use of multiple methods for data collection and analysis. the primary sources in this study were the primary source materials and documentary evidence , which includes the study of primary material such as policies of implementation of fire education in the US and UK, Recommended school curriculum with focus on fire education for US and UK schools, among others. Secondary sources included interviews. Multiple sources of evidence and different data collection techniques (such as documentary evidence, interviews and observations) are two methods among many that Patton (1990) suggested to improve the quality of the data and research findings.

3.4 Study Design

The following describes the activities that were involved in this study

Preliminary activities. The researcher conducted a comprehensive literature review on the needs and implementation of fire education in the US, the UK, and the state of affairs of implementation in the UAE.

Data collection, data reduction and data analysis. The researcher collected data sufficient enough to address the study’s three research questions through the use of multiple methods of data collection and multiple sources of evidence. The data will be collected, coded and analyzed. Synthesis of the data will involve comparing and checking data from various sources

Findings. The researcher documented the findings of the effects of rise in the cost of Higher education funding in the UK on the students, and how the rise in the cost of higher education funding affects employment within the United Kingdom.

Final report. The researcher then compiled the results of all activities in a report document.

3.5 Sources of data and data collection

The researcher documented all evidence for developing and accurate chronology of the importance of fire education, and how fire education has been implemented in the US and the UK. Documenting of all evidence will help the researcher uncover meaning, develop understanding and discover insights relevant to the research problem (Yin, 1994).

This study shall employ two techniques to collect data for the study

Documentary evidence consisting of primary source materials related the implementation of fire education in the US and the UK

Guided interviews with participants in the UAE

3.5.1 Preliminary source material and documentary evidence

Documentary information is likely to be relevant to every case study topic : it can help the researcher uncover meaning, develop understanding and discover insights relevant to the research problem (Yin, 1994). The researcher gathered source material relating to the implementation of fire education in the US and the UK

The key criteria for selecting the primary material is :

Authority -necessary for establishing the document’s credibility.

Relevance- the documents must be relevant to the study.

3.5.2 Guided interviews with the selected participants

Patton (1990) observed that interviews provide a way of collecting information and finding out about things that the researcher cannot directly observe. Yin (1994) noted that interviews are an important data collection technique for a case study because case studies are usually about human affairs, therefore they should reported and interpreted through the eyes of specific interviewees, and well informed respondents can provide important insights into a situation. For this study, interviews shall serve the following purposes:

Obtaining here-and –now constructions of a phenomena

Reconstruction of previous events

Projection of the future

Verification and corroboration of data from other sources

The researcher identified teachers who participated in the interview for the study on the needs and possible implementation of fire education in the UAE. The interview provided information on their views on the possible avenues of educating the public and students on fire education.

3.5.3 Selection of data sources

The researcher used purposive sampling technique to select key participants that represented the population. Random sampling aims at maximizing information collection for variance, and identifies information-rich sources for in-depth data collection ( Patton, 1990).

3.6 Data analysis

3.6.1 Analysis of primary source material

The researcher chose trusted documents from government and other high reputation sites for the study. Such documents includes

Fire education and implementation documents and policies in the US and UK

School curriculum with specific focus of fire education for US and UK schools

Fire departments articles and journals on community fire education in the US and UK

Most of these source materials are official records. The researcher shall document all the findings from these documents for coding

3.6.2 Analysis of interviews

The researcher shall analyze the results of the interviews from the perspective of the teachers in the UAE on the needs and possible avenues in the implementation of fire education policies in the United Arab Emirates (UAE)

3.7 Quality and trustworthiness of the study.

The most important aspect of any research is to incorporate appropriate mechanisms that assure the researcher and reader of the research of the quality of the research, its process and findings.

3.7.1 Quality of the data sources

This research shall ensure that it employs high quality data sources. The researcher shall be keen through the study to capture quality data that build an understanding on the implementation of fire education in the US and the UK, with the objective of finding roadmap for the implementation of the same in the UAE. The researcher used data from trusted sources such as government sites and other authoritative sources such as the US and UK government policies and school curriculum, and fire authorities journals and policies in community fire education.

The researcher used random sampling to select the participants to ensure that the view expressed reflect the overall population views.

3.8 Ethical Considerations

The participants are valuable contributors to this research project. The researcher ensured that their participation in this study does not expose them to any risk. The researcher shall protect the privacy and confidence of all the participants using pseudonyms. The study participants can provide important feedback and useful contributions to the analysis throughout the course of the project. The researcher shall also ensure that the participants perspectives are accurately reflected,, therefore, the researcher shall share the transcriptions of interviews and analyses of the conversations with the study participants during the data collection and write-up process.

3.9 summary

This chapter highlights the research methodology that shall be adopted by the researcher in achieving the research objectives. The research is qualitative and shall use case studies to gather pertinent data to answer the three research questions: the importance of fire safety, how developed countries implement fire safety education and how these methods can be adopted in the UAE. A qualitative approach best suits this research because the research requires an approach that would acknowledge the complexity of social process and focus on the context and specifics fire education implementation in the US and UK. The researcher shall gather data from trusted primary sources such as government sites. After gathering of the data, the researcher shall document the findings for analysis and answering the research questions. Ethical consideration of the study and participants are explained in the chapter.

CHAPTER FOUR

RESEARCH FINDINGS

4.0 introduction

This chapter shall discuss the findings of the research that was conducted in order to determine the importance of fire education and its implementation in the US and UK. This chapter answers the research questions, thereby achieving the objectives of the study.

4.1 research questions

In order to achieve the stipulated objectives of this research, the researcher gathered pertinent data though the research methods discussed in chapter three. This research was conducted to answer the following research questions

What is the importance of fire safety education?

How do the developed countries implement fire safety education?

How can fire safety education be implemented in the United Arab Emirates?

4.1. The importance of fire safety education.

During the research, the researcher asked the respondents in UAE the following general questions

Is fire a threat to your everyday life?

How would you tackle fire if it was to occur at your residence or area of work?

How important is fire education to your life?

Have you had any education or training in fire management?

Do you think that you need fire education now or in the future?

4.1.1 Fire as a threat

The Fire industry Association (FIA, 2012) explains that every year, people die or is seriously injured as a result of fires in both domestic and non-domestic properties. It’s noted that apart from the human risk, fire also poses a threat to property and resources such as forests and wild lands.

From the research, 90% of the respondents agreed that fire is an everyday threat to their lives. Only 10% of the respondents disagreed that fire is not a threat to life depending on the safety precautions and preventive mechanisms that a person puts in place to safeguard against fire, such as building fire proof structures, installing fire suppression systems and taking insurance to cover for loss

A research study conducted by Holborn et al (2003) revealed that out of 259 fires investigated in caused of fire in the UK in the year 2003, 47% (121 incidents ) of the investigated fires had a cigarette, tobacco or cigar as the source of ignition, 14% of the fires (36 incidents) were caused by cooking appliances, and the remaining 8% (21 fires) were caused by candles (see the figure below)

Figure Unintentional fatal dwelling fires by source of ignition.

Duncanson M, et al (2002) in a research study conducted in New Zealand to determine the relationship between the socio-economic deprivation and risk of unintentional fatal domestic fire incidents reported that annual rates of fatal casualties in domestic fire were higher from people who come from lower socio-economic backgrounds as compared to people from well backgrounds . In the USA, reformers linked poor housing and poverty to fire hazards from as early as 1930 (Jennings cited in Duncanson, 2002). The research noted that

Findings from a number of studies, conducted from different disciplinary perspectives, [point to eachcommunity’s socioeconomic and environmental factors as the primary determinants of fire loss ] Epidemiological studies in the USA have found that death and injury rates in residential fires are highest in census tracts with low rental values of properties and in areas with low median household income, lower property values, and poor quality housing . In the UK ‘‘the death rate due to fire and flame for children in social class V is over 16 times that of children in social class I y the explanation that is best

Supported by research evidence is that the gradients (for childhood mortality from injury) reflect differential exposure to health damaging physical and social environments. For fire deaths this entails exposure of children to temporary accommodation and substandard housing’’. Social stress also plays a role in injury rates as parents who may ‘‘lack the means to resolve the recurrent setbacks which dominate their domestic lives are less well equipped to provide continuous and vigilant protection’’ for their children

Injury rates as parents who may ‘‘lack the means to resolve the recurrent setbacks which dominate their domestic lives are less well equipped to provide continuous and vigilant protection’’ for their children ( M. Duncanson et al. , 2002, Fire Safety Journal 37 (2002) 165–179)"

Worst recorded fire tragedies that could have avoided with fire education

The researcher analyzed some of the world’s worst fire tragedies with an objective to estimate if the fires could have been avoided.

The Karachi fire tragedy of September 2012 in a garment factory. The fire was set off by an unknown cause when employees at the factory went to receive their payments, locking themselves in. the fire killed 258 workers. Its reported that the exits were "shut to prevent theft" therefore resulting in massive loss of life

"Most of the workers who died were on the first and second floors, fire officials said, and were killed because there were not enough exits. "So the workers could not come out when the fire engulfed the building," said Maj. Mohammad Mahbub, the operations director for the Fire Department, according to The Associated Press" –New York times

Most of the workers, in an attempt to flee, pressed against the doors, and in the process, trapping themselves in. rescuers explained that rescue was nearly impossible because the building had only one exit.

Joanna Henderson (2009) observe the fire journal that in the year 2002 in the unites states alone, children playing with fire started about 14,000 structural fires, causing over 210 deaths and injuring over 1,200 people. It is noted that half of intentionally started fires are started by juveniles and one third are attributed to children of under 14 years (Hall ,J. R. 2005).

Fire Safety Journal 43 (2008) 71–76

4.1.2 Tackling fire

Shen-wen Chien et al (2007) in a research paper on the strategies of fire prevention on residential fires notes that, residential fires remains the major type of fires among all fire incidents and the main reason to causing unintentional fire deaths. In the study, it was noted 75% of the deaths caused by fire incidents occur in residential places. This clearly demonstrates the need to train the local residents on fire-tackling fire.

80% of the respondents acknowledged that they had no basic skills in extinguishing fire. The respondents agreed that the only basic operation that they could do in electric fires was to switch off power from the mains switch, and pour water on any other type of fire. Most of the respondents (60 %) did not have any knowledge on the different types of fires and how they can be extinguished.

80% of the respondents noted that they had never used a fire extinguisher before, and did not have them installed in their residence areas.

4.1.3 Importance of fire education

From the research, 100% of the respondents agreed that fire education should be taught to people to help them prevent the occurrence of fires, and safely extinguish any arising fires and / or exit from those fires that they cannot manage to suppress safely.

The respondents agreed that fire education could help minimize the occurrence of fires and help save lives in case of fire incidents.

The respondents agreed that the government should include fire education to school curriculums to be taught to students at all levels.

4.1.4 Fire management training

90% of the respondents in the study noted that they had never had any fire management training in their lifetime. 80% of the respondents noted that they did not know how to use the fire extinguishers, whereas only 10% of the respondents had had training at their working place.

4.1.5 The need of fire education

90% of the respondents agreed that they required fire education to equip them with the basic skills of preventing and suppressing fire incidents. 10% of the respondents noted that they had received fire training in schools, factories or their places of work.

4.2 The implementation of fire education

4.2.1 The implementation of fire education in the USA.

Fire safety education is targeted in the US to reach children as well as adults to educate everyone about the attitudes and behaviors that help in the prevention of fire (Fire Safety Education, 2007). Fire safety education consists of broad spectrum if programs and activities directed towards a diverse target audience such as

Pre-schoolers

Schoolchildren

Senior citizens

Home owners

Apartment dwellers

Physically challenged people

Hospital and nursing homes staff

Churches

Service

Civic organizations

Fire and life safety education in various communities in the US is more likely to be a part of the fire department’s traditional fire prevention program. These programs are designed to achieve the following general objectives:

increase the awareness of the human actions that can result to fires, burns, scalding and fire related injuries or fatalities

Develop skills and knowledge to an individual for prevention of fires, or minimize injuries from fire and heat when a fire occurs.

In the US and Canada, the education curriculum includes specialized training for preparing students for responses to natural disasters such as earthquakes, tornadoes and hurricanes, disseminated as part of the department of fire’s educational portfolio. In other parts of the Country, fire departments play a role in response to terrorist activities.

The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) publishes an educational curriculum document called the Campus Firewatch, that is used in schools to teach college students about fire safety. This is one of the many school programs that are available in communities where colleges and universities are located. The document provides training and educational programs for the students who live in dormitories and fraternity houses(NFPA, 2006)

Fire and life safety education in the US

Research has shown that, people become conscious of the need for fire safety whenever a spectacular fire incident is in the headlines of the news and make them aware of the cost of fire in terms of both human lives and property. Before that, people seldom fell any personal responsibility to enhance their own fire-safe living practices (NFPA, 2006).

For a long time, the public has been exposed in the US to fire related safety messages only during FPW, established by President Warren G. Harding in 1922.

In 1973, the fire department’s interest in fire and life safety education increased following the publication of the report of the President’s commission on Fire Prevention and Control.

"In the commission’s poll of those who live daily with the destructive fires – fire service personnel – 98% of those who replied to the National Fire prevention and Control’s call for comments back in the early 1970’s agreed that there was a need for greater education of the public in fire and life safety " (NCFPC, 1973, p. 105)

Implementation of fire safety education

Schools , colleges and universities

In the US, direct action by the government is limited to requirements such as mandating smoke detectors, educational efforts that lead to more appropriate fire and life safety behavior is directed by the fire department. The department acquired its mandate of educating the public following the emergencies triggered by hurricane Katrina. In 1981, NFPA established an educational section to help meet the needs for fire prevention education. The associations "Learn Not to Burn"initiative programs were developed and tested in consultation with the educators, fire and burn prevention experts and curriculum specialists. In 1985, curriculum specialists (the National Education Association) recommended its use by the American Schools and fire departments. The program was designed into structured series of fire and life safety lessons that includes

a curriculum for students in kindergarten through grade 8,

resource materials for teachers of preschool students

"Learn Not to Burn" resource books for children in kindergarten through grade 3

Starting from the 1990’s, the public fire safety education program expanded into the present day’s Fire and Life safety Education , that includes a variety of other programs such as

fire and burn safety

injury prevention messages including topics such as

electrical safety

pedestrian safety

water safety

poisoning prevention

Community and the Public

The Lost Angeles fire department developed and implemented the CERT (Community Emergency Response Team ), that is a specialized training to enhance the citizens understanding of their responsibilities in preparing for disaster and the ability for the citizens to help themselves, their families and neighbors in case of incidents and disasters. It focuses on disaster preparedness and management such as

disaster response skills

fire safety

light search and rescue

team organization

disaster medical operations

The CERT members can help others in their neighborhood and workplace during disasters using the training they learn in the classroom and during exercises. This is very critical because the first people on the scene of incidents/accident are the general public, who if trained, can administer help and help save lives before the professional team arrives.

Organization of fire safety programs

It has been noted that successful education begins with god decisions by the managers of fire and life safety programs. At the same time, good programs on fire and life safety are not likely to succeed without the active leadership and participation of the local fire departments.

Usually, they source and achieve funding for such programs in most states.

The organization and enhancement of any effective education programs follows the same steps as any other education program.

Identity the needs (new or changed). Thi

Setting goals and objectives

Developing and implementing a comprehensive program

Monitoring, evaluating and improving the program

The following is the levels of fire and safety educators

Level 1 is for those who co-ordinate and deliver existing programs

Level 2 is for individuals who prepare educational programs

Level 3 is for the educators who create, administer and evaluate educational programs a and information

Methods of administering fire and life safety education

School children.

School programs for children and young people are taught on fire prevention and managements several times as they progress towards graduation. They are taught following the program "learn not to burn". The following are the general objectives of the program.

By the end of the program, students should be able to:

Recognize the basic components and hazards of heat, smoke a, gasses and flame

Recognize the importance of early detection, quick reporting and rapid suppression of fire

Demonstrate knowledge required to survive clothing fires

Demonstrate the basic first aid skills for minor burn injuries

Identify home and outdoor fire prevention practises

Recognize the causes of arson and its impact in the community

Recognize the role of fire department in the community

Children in alternative education

Because these children mostly are at home wit their parents, they require a different approach. Some fire departments offer and advertise special sessions for them and their families at the fire stations.

Boy scouts, girl Scouts and other activity groups

These groups provide the best options for teaching the basic life skills and practise. The approach and objectives to teaching fire safety education may be similar to the school children, but with more practise in life saving and first aid administration skills. The children are a also allowed to touch and use fire equipment and apparatus.

Adults

Teaching adults can be a bit challenging because they are never all available at the same time. Therefore, a comprehensive program must try to reach them in as many ways as the program staff and budget can allow. Such forms includes staging parades, fire station open houses, demonstrations of fire suppressions, equipment and apparatus demonstrations, window decoration contests among others

Residents of hospitals, nursing homes and other group homes

In most states of the US, these facilities are inspected several times each year for fire safety compliance. These inspection sessions provides opportunities for delivering fire and life safety messages to the management, staff(with emphasis or engineering and maintenance) and the residents who are able to identity hazards, practice fire-safe behaviors and evacuate in emergencies

Motels and hotels

It has been noted that most people in these facilities are travelling and do not attend any fictions. Therefore, inured to reach and educate them, several approaches are followed, such as, many of these facilities are required to display "In case of fire Emergency "instructions inside the rooms. Other managers may print and display "Fire Safety Suggestions for the Home" that reminds the occupants of the hazards and safety procedures that they should adopt even when they return to their homes

The media

The media plays a role in fire and safety education in supporting the local safety educators. The media delivers public safety education messages, and provide publicity to the department’s mission to the public (cote, 2003).

The media reaches all audience of varying and diverse backgrounds, in all situations.

4.2.2 The implementation of fire education in the UK

Mostly, the Program implementation in the UK assimilated the implementation in the US, with very little differences.

In the UK, the approach of delivering public fire safety education materials can vary between communities depending on each community’s needs and circumstances determined by the risk assessment process

It is noted that the method of delivering these materials also vary depending on the type of information being disseminated and the target audience( which may be composed of children,. Seniors, specific cultural communities etc)

The needs of the local people is identifies through the risk assessment, which usually includes a review of emergency response data, survey of the residence, and fire service experience. The risk assessment is conducted to provide information that assist the fire department identify high-risk groups and activities for the development of effective strategies that can aid in the successful distribution of appropriate public fire safety education materials to the high-risk areas

The needs of the community may also be identified through using focus groups and safety surveys. These studies are carries in order to determine the knowledge and attitudes of a community in focus to determine their attitudes regarding safety education and at the same time, provide insight to the type of fire safety information that the community needs, and at times, act as feedback mechanism in establishing the effectiveness of safety education that is carried out.

In the UK, fire safety education materials focus on fire prevention, detection and escape. The educational materials vary depending on the target audience.

Implementation.

In the UK, fire safety materials may be distributed the public using any of the following approaches

Distribution of pamphlets or other educational material (such as through mailings, web sites, resident calling a phone number to request information, by making availing the materials in in municipal buildings, distributing material to critical contact organizations, door to door campaigns, etc.)

Distribution of public service announcements that utilize the available media resources ,such as television, print and radio

Provision of instructions to residents/occupants on fire safety planning and related fire safety matters

Presenting to special interest groups such as seniors, children or special interest groups like girl guides/boy scouts, business or professional associations

Using effective training aids such as the safety villages, fire safety trailers, videos, articles and photos related to actual fires

Participating in displays and public events

Providing fire safety messages on municipal vehicles and on sign boards throughout the community

Providing training and resources to target group contacts (e.g. a community leader, homecare worker, seniors’ events coordinator, building manager, etc.)

And other methods

4.2.3 Other countries

a) Scotland.

Theo government of Scotland designed policies that govern the implementation of fire education. The government issued guidance that aims at local authorities and other stakeholders with an interest in establishing and maintaining a safe school environment free from fire and its effects. Policy document were developed as part of the school strategy.

It was noted that each year, more than 2000 schools in the UK suffered fires that were larger enough to warrant the actions from fire service. It was noted that these fires ranged from small rubbish fires to large more destructive internal fires that critically hampered the operations of schools (Fire safety in schools, 2003)

The fire service department in Scotland is responsible for enforcing fire precautions regulations.

4.3 summary

During the study, it was observed that a high percentage of the population (90%) from the UAE acknowledged that fire is a threat in their daily lives, and had little or no knowledge and skills of fire prevention, suppression and management during fire breakouts. prior research showed that up to 47% of previous fire incidents were caused by cigarette, tobacco or cigars, showing the need for fire education. A high percentage (100%) of the respondents in the study agreed that they require fire education, with up to 90% noting that they had never had fire training in their lives. The chapter highlights the importance of fire education to the public as whole, from pre-school children to adults. The chapter details the implementations of fire safety education in the US and UK, from school, colleges and universities and community education. Fire safety programs and exercise in the US and UK are highlighted.

CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSIONS

This study was established in order to determine the importance of fire safety education to UAE public and its implementation. The researcher conducted a qualitative investigation on how fire education has been developed and carried out in the Unites States of America (USA) and the United Kingdom (UK) with an objective of determining how the same can be employed to teach fire education to the public of United Arab Emirates (UAE)

The researcher set out with an objective of determining the importance of fire education to the UAE citizens. The research found that fire and life safety education is a critical requisite in today’s living. It was noted that most people know that fire is a threat to their day to day living, and most of them acknowledged that they need fire education in order to help them cope up with the event of fire incidents in their areas of work or residence. The research found that apart from calling the fire department, majority of the people in the UAE did not know how else to respond to fire incidents, apart from the basic "water pouring " and calling for help, because most of them had never received any training on fire management and suppression.

There are many hazards that can cause fires and incidents that at the end may consume lives and lead to loss of property worth millions.

The research, through case study, found out that the US had put elaborate programs that can educate the public on fire education, ranging targeting preschoolers, school children senior citizens, home owners, churches, apartment dwellers to civic organizations to educate them on fire and disaster management practices, fire suppression, to advanced education such as natural disaster management such as earthquakes, tornadoes, to hurricanes and terrorist activities. It was noted that the fire department, who are responsible for the development and deployment of fire and safety education curricula, realized that the public are usually the first on the scene of incident and on teaching them how to carry out disaster management and suppression could help save lives before the professional team arrives

The fire department is responsible for tailor making fire and safety education programs for schools named "Learn Not to Burn". The program contains curricula for teaching students from kindergarten through grade 8, completely packaged with learning materials for the students and teaching /resource materials for the teachers. The department also publishes an curricula document called "the Campus Watch" targeted at more mature audience in colleges and campuses, that enhances what was taught in the lower levels and advances on fire and safety management.

Apart from the school programs ("Learn Not to Burn", and "the Campus Watch") targeted on school going students, the department has put in place elaborate plans for targeting other non-school going children and their parents on fire and safety education. The programs, with the same objectives, are availed through the media, and fire education functions that targets the parents and the senior citizens as well, who do not have enough time to attend the fire functions.

Aside from teaching fire safety to the public, these programs also teachers disaster response skills, fire safety, light search and rescue, team organization an disaster medical operations .this enables the public to help others in their neighborhoods and workplace during disasters using the skills and knowledge they acquired during the training. This created a disaster-ready public, who can respond to tough situations such as presented by extreme situations, storms, typhoons, fires among others.

The UAE should adopt how the US department of fire has designed a curricula that created a situation-aware and ready public who can respond to hazards and situations upon their happening and help save lives instead of relying on the relevant fire authorities for help, of who can delay in responding and in the process, lives that could have been saves are lost due to lack of skills and knowledge in fire and safety education.

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